Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Altered Hematology & Cardiovascular System Case Study

Altered Hematology & Cardiovascular System - Case Study Example Hypoxia of central nervous system causes faintness and headaches while myocardial hypoxia results in palpitations and increased heart rates (Kumar et al 2005). She has a history of chronic blood loss which is due to menorrhagia. Other causes of chronic blood loss include gastrointestinal bleeding, malignant diseases and urinary bleeding. Chronic blood loss anemia results from blood loss in small amounts, which occurs over a long period of time and it results in iron deficiency anemia because the iron stores of the body are depleted. Consequently, the oxygen-carrying capacity of the red blood cells is reduced and the patient presents with signs and symptoms of anemia. The clinical features of the chronic blood loss anemia are not severe until the hemoglobin levels of the blood are extremely low (Emmanuel et al 2001). The shortness of breath of the patient is explained by the decreased oxygen content of the blood cell which is exacerbated due to exertion (Kumar et al 2005). As mentione d in the case she presented with severity of symptoms while playing golf at a high course which induced exertion. Chronic blood loss is a very important and common cause of iron deficiency anemia which is caused when all iron stores are depleted due to external hemorrhage over a long period of time. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) presents with a peripheral blood film of microcytic and hypochromic red blood cells. The serum reserves of ferritin and hemosiderin are utilized in the initial stages of blood loss, however, when these stores have also been consumed, the symptoms of anemia manifest. Serum iron, ferritin and transferring levels are also reduced (Kumar et al 2005). Another... The paper tells that proper amount of rest and limitation of the daily activities to a certain extent will help the patient to control the signs and symptoms of CHF. The restriction of daily physical exertion will put less amount of workload on the heart and hence, improve the condition of the patient. The second step in managing the case is a proper diet plan. The patient should be advised to reduce the sodium content in his food items as this will reduce water retention in his body lowering the cardiac workload. The sodium content should be limited to 1.5 to 2g per day. Alcohol consumption should also be lowered down to only one drink per day which plays an important role in lowering the systolic blood pressure by 2-4 points. Chronic alcoholism is a very important cause of cardiomyopathy and if the patient shows a positive history of alcoholism he should be advised to consume a low to moderate amount of alcohol. Weight control and a dietary calorie limitation are recommended in the obese patients. They are advised to a body mass index of 18.5 to 24.9 and eat a healthy balanced diet comprising of green vegetables, fruits, and low-fat food items. Exercise including aerobic and strength training in CHF patients in an adequate amount also helps in improving the patient’s condition. The patient should be advised to exercise for 30 minutes five to six times a week and increase his physical activity. However, if he complains of angina pain, shows symptoms of respiratory distress, CNS symptoms or increased fatigue exercise should be stopped.

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